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Who can file a case in NCLT?

The National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) is a quasi-judicial body in India established under the Companies Act, 2013, to address corporate law, insolvency, and other company-related disputes. Parties with various roles and interests have the right to file cases before the NCLT, in accordance with the Companies Act, 2013, and other applicable laws. Here are the key parties that can file cases in the NCLT:

Companies and Their Members/Shareholders:

  • Company Petition: Companies can file petitions for matters such as corporate restructuring, mergers, amalgamations, and reduction of share capital. For instance, a company seeking to merge with another can file a petition to obtain approval for the merger scheme.
  • Class Action: Shareholders or members of a company can file class action suits against the company, its directors, auditors, or other parties for alleged acts of oppression or mismanagement.


  • Insolvency Application: Financial creditors, operational creditors, and corporate debtors can file insolvency applications when a company defaults on payment obligations. The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) provides the framework for resolving insolvency cases, in which the NCLT plays a crucial role.

Government Authorities:

  • Government bodies like the Registrar of Companies, Ministry of Corporate Affairs, and Income Tax Department can file cases related to compliance, investigations, and enforcement of corporate laws.

Directors and Key Management Personnel:

  • Directors and key management personnel can file cases regarding their removal, disqualification, or disputes arising from their roles in the company.

Trade Unions and Employees:

  • Trade unions and employees can approach the NCLT for labor-related issues, including unfair labor practices, disputes over employee welfare, or non-compliance with labor laws.

Any Other Person Aggrieved:

  • In specific cases, individuals who are aggrieved by the actions of a company or its management can file cases before the NCLT to seek remedies.

It’s important to note that while various parties can file cases before the NCLT, the specific procedures, forms, and requirements for filing cases may vary based on the nature of the case and the relevant laws. The NCLT upholds principles of natural justice and strives to provide fair and efficient resolution of corporate disputes while fostering transparency and accountability in corporate governance.

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