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Remedies and safeguards for vexatious litigation in civil disputes in Indore

Remedies and safeguards for vexatious litigation in civil disputes in Indore

As a civil lawyer in Indore, I encounter vexatious litigation all too often. These frivolous lawsuits can be a source of immense stress and financial strain for defendants, and they clog up the already overburdened court system. Thankfully, our legal system in Madhya Pradesh offers a range of remedies and safeguards to protect defendants from such harassment.


  • Costs Orders: Under Order 26 Rule 5 of the Civil Procedure Code (CPC), the court has the power to award costs against a party who initiates or prosecutes proceedings without reasonable ground. This can be a significant deterrent, forcing the vexatious litigant to bear the financial burden of their actions.
  • Security for Costs: Under Order 25 Rule 1 CPC, the court can require a party to furnish security for the costs of the opposite party if it appears that the party lacks sufficient means to pay such costs. This prevents frivolous lawsuits from being filed by individuals with no real prospect of success.
  • Summary Dismissal: Order 7 Rule 11 CPC allows the court to dismiss a suit at an early stage if it is satisfied that the plaint discloses no cause of action, is frivolous or vexatious, or is an abuse of the process of the court. This can provide swift relief for defendants facing unfounded claims.
  • Anti-suit Injunctions: In exceptional cases, the High Court may grant an injunction restraining a party from instituting or continuing proceedings in another court in relation to the same subject matter. This can be a powerful tool to prevent forum shopping and harassment.
  • Contempt of Court: If a party deliberately abuses the court process by filing vexatious litigation, they may be held in contempt of court and face sanctions such as fines or imprisonment. This serves as a strong deterrent against blatant abuse of the legal system.


  • Abuse of Process Guidelines: The Indore High Court has established specific guidelines for identifying and dealing with cases of abuse of process. These guidelines provide a framework for judges to assess cases and determine appropriate remedies.
  • Gatekeeping by Judges: Judges play a crucial role in identifying and preventing vexatious litigation. They have the discretion to dismiss cases at an early stage if they find them to be frivolous or vexatious, and they can also impose costs sanctions on parties who abuse the process.
  • Mediation and ADR: Encouraging parties to resort to alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms like mediation can help resolve disputes before they reach court. This can be particularly helpful in cases where the underlying issue is not legal but stems from personal animosity or misunderstandings.
  • Raising Awareness: Educating legal professionals and the public about the dangers of vexatious litigation is crucial. By creating awareness about the consequences of filing frivolous lawsuits, we can deter such actions and promote a culture of responsible litigation.

Challenges and Considerations:

While these remedies and safeguards offer valuable protection, it’s important to acknowledge the challenges:

  • Defining Vexatious Litigation: There is no single definition of vexatious litigation, and its application can be subjective. This can lead to concerns about inconsistency and potential for misuse.
  • Balancing Interests: Striking the right balance between protecting defendants and upholding access to justice is crucial. Overzealous measures against vexatious litigation could inadvertently hinder legitimate claims.
  • Procedural Fairness: Procedures for addressing vexatious litigation must be fair and transparent, ensuring due process for all parties involved.


As a civil lawyer in Indore, I believe that addressing vexatious litigation requires a multi-faceted approach. We need effective legal remedies, robust safeguards, and a commitment to promoting responsible litigation practices. By working together, we can create a legal system that protects defendants from harassment and ensures access to justice for all.

Remember, this information is for general knowledge only and does not constitute legal advice. For specific legal advice regarding a particular case, it is always advisable to consult with a qualified lawyer.

Adcocate J.S. Rohilla (Civil & Criminal Lawyer in Indore)

Contact: 88271 22304

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